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Music Theory Resources

This is the circle of fifths. It shows all 12 major keys and 12 minor keys possible in the Western system. The name "circle of fifths" comes from the fact that the tonic pitch of a key (which is the same as the name of the key) changes by a perfect 5th each time you add or remove an accidental: it goes up a 5th each time you add a sharp or remove a flat, and it goes down a fifth each time you add a flat or remove a sharp. That is, if we start at C, which has no sharps or flats, and go up a perfect 5th, we get G, and the key of G has one sharp. It should be noted that flats and sharps are always added in a specific order.

Notes relate to one another in terms of "intervals," which is the distance from one note to the next. There are two kinds of intervals: harmonic and melodic. With harmonic intervals, the notes are played simultaneously. When an interval is melodic, the notes are played in succession, either upwards or downwards. With melodic intervals, they are categorized as either ascending or descending. 



Ear Training: 


A chart of well known songs that can help identify note intervals: 


A website for ear training: